Math 216: Foundations of algebraic geometry 2007-08
The course webpage for the 2011-12 version of the course is
here, along with more recent lecture notes.
Go there first.
All notes in four big files
Here are the notes: Fall,
These notes are quite rough, and roughly reflect what I did in class. I have reordered and improved them for the 2009-10 class, but these 2007-08 files (with all remaining errors and infelicities) will stay frozen. I didn't get around to typing up notes for some of the later classes, but you can find some of that discussion in the 2005-06 course notes.
The posted lecture notes will be rough, so I recommend having another
source you like,
for example Mumford's Red Book of Varieties and Schemes
(the original edition is better, as Springer introduced errors
into the second edition by retyping it), and Hartshorne's
Algebraic Geometry. Both books are on reserve
at the library. Mumford (2nd ed) may be availble online
(with a Stanford account) from Springer
Hartshorne should be available at the bookstore.
For background on commutative algebra, I'd suggest consulting
Eisenbud's Commutative Algebra with a view toward algebraic geometry
or Atiyah and MacDonald's
Commutative Algebra. For background on abstract nonsense,
Weibel's Introduction to Homological Algebra is good to have handy.
Justin Walker also points out that Freyd's Abelian Categories
is available online (free and legally) here.
Homework: Unlike most advanced graduate courses, there
will be homework. It is important --- this material is very dense,
and the only way to understand it is to grapple with it at close range.
Notes for the classes in ps and pdf formats will be posted
Caution: All of these notes are quite rough, and just
approximate transcriptions of my lecture notes.
I encourage you to take notes yourselves, and not just
rely on these. However,
if you feel like pointing out improvements, I would appreciate
it, as these notes are crudely extracted from a larger
set of notes that I hope to make available eventually.
Note that I give the dates of the last important update.
Unimportant updates that do not change anything substantive will
not be flagged.
Baiju Bhatt has pointed out Brian Osserman's
very helpful cheatsheets that might help you keep
track of the myriad definitions. He has
one for properties of schemes
and one for properties of
morphisms of schemes.
- Class 1 (Mon. Sept. 24): about this course; what
is algebraic geometry; motivation and program; a bit of category theory.
- Class 2 (Wed. Sept. 26): Yoneda's
lemma (which we'll never use); limits and colimits; adjoints. (Paul Levy points out that my definition of the equivalence relation in "groupification" should read: (a,b) ~ (c,d) if there exists some e in S such that a+d+e=b+c+e.)
- Class 3 (Mon. Oct. 1):
abelian categories, kernels, cokernels, images, exactness, homology.
Introduction to sheaves, presheaves, sheaves, examples and motivation.
Updated Oct. 6 to fix typo in definition of "monic".
- Class 4 (Wed. Oct. 3):
morphisms of (pre)sheaves; properties determined at the level of stalks;
sheaves of abelian groups, and O_X modules, form abelian categories.
Mild update Nov. 1.
- Class 5 (Mon. Oct. 8): inverse
image sheaf; sheaves on a base; toward schemes; the underlying set of
an affine scheme.
Mild update Nov. 1.
- Class 6 (Wed. Oct. 10):
more examples of underlying sets of affine schemes; the Zariski
topology; topological definitions.
Mild update Nov. 1.
- Classes 7 and 8 (Mon. Oct. 15 and Wed. Oct. 17): decomposition into irreducible components; the function I(.);
distinguished open sets; the structure sheaf, and the definition of a scheme.
Updated Nov. 15.
- Classes 9 and 10 (Mon. Oct. 22 and Wed. Oct. 24): topological properties; reducedness and integrality;
affine-local properties; normality and factoriality; associated
points and fuzzy pictures take 1. Updated Nov. 13 to add quasiseparated schemes.
- Classes 11 and 12 (Mon. Oct. 29 and Wed. Oct. 31): associated points continued; introduction to morphisms of schemes; morphisms of ringed spaces; from locally ringed spaces to morphisms of schemes;
some types of morphisms. Updated Nov. 8
(some of the discussion has been moved
to the class 13 notes).
- Class 13 (Mon. Nov. 5): some types
of morphisms (quasicompact and quasiseparated, open immersion, affine, finite, closed immersion,
locally closed immersion); construction related to "smallest closed
subschemes" (scheme-theoretic image, scheme-theoretic closure, induced reduced
subscheme, and the reduction of a scheme); more finiteness conditions on morphisms ((locally) of finite type, quasifinite, (locally) of finite presentation).
Updated Nov. 13 to include quasiseparated morphisms.
Small update Nov. 15.
- Class 14 (Wed. Nov. 7): Projective
varieties, the Proj construction, examples, maps of graded rings and maps of projective schemes, important exercises. Updated Nov. 15.
- Classes 15 and 16 (Mon. Nov. 12 and Wed. Nov. 14):
fibered products of schemes: fibered products exist; computing them in practice; pulling back families and fibers of morphisms; properties preserved by base change; products of projective schemes (the Segre embedding); introduction
to separated morphisms. Small update Dec. 11.
is a picture of a quadric with its two rulings of lines
(found on Rick Litherland's homepage).
Sammy Barkowski has created this version where the
rulings are shown (thanks!).
is another picture, showing 3 lines in the same ruling (part of a
larger story that Frank Sottile tells on his webpage).
is a string model at the University of Arizona.
- Problem set 8 (due Fri. Nov. 30).
Updated Nov. 17 (one problem removed).
- Class 17 (Mon. Nov. 26): quasiseparatedness,
separatedness, rational maps, dominant and birational, examples of rational maps. (Some of this was done in class 18.)
- Class 18 (Wed. Nov. 28): proper morphisms.
- Class 19 (Mon. Dec. 4): dimension
and codimension, integral extensions and the Going-up theorem, Nakayama's lemma.
- Class 20 (Wed. Dec. 6): dimension
and transcendence degree; images of morphisms and Chevalley's theorem;
fun in codimension 1 (Krull, Algebraic Hartogs', ...).
Summary of quarter (not in notes).
- Class 21 (Fri. Jan. 11): nonsingularity
("smoothness" of Noetherian schemes); the Zariski tangent space; the
local dimension is at most the dimension of the tangent space.
Class 22 (Mon. Jan. 14): discrete
valuation rings: dimension 1 Noetherian regular local rings.
- Class 23 (Wed. Jan. 16): valuative criteria
for separatedness and properness.
24 (Fri. Jan. 18): vector bundles and locally free sheaves; useful
constructions for locally free sheaves; the distinguished affine base
(toward quasicoherent sheaves).
- No class Mon. Jan. 21 (Martin
Luther King Day)
- Class 25
(Wed. Jan. 23): quasicoherent sheaves (two or three definitions);
quasicoherent sheaves form an abelian category; module-like
constructions for quasicoherent sheaves.
- Class 26 (Fri. Jan. 25): more module-like
constructions; finiteness conditions on quasicoherent sheaves (finite
type and coherent sheaves).
27 (Mon. Jan. 28): quasicoherent sheaves of ideals and closed
subschemes. Line bundles: some line bundles on projective space; line
bundles from effective Cartier divisors. Corrected Feb. 19 (thanks
- Classes 28 and 29
(Wed. Jan. 30 and Fri. Feb. 1): invertible sheaves and Weil divisors.
- Class 30 (Mon. Feb. 4): the
quasicoherent sheaf corresponding to a graded module; invertible
sheaves (line bundles) on projective A-schemes; generated by global
sections, and Serre's theorem; every quasicoherent sheaf on a
projective A-scheme arises from a garded module.
Class 31 (Wed. Feb. 6): Pullbacks and
pushforwards of quasicoherent sheaves.
- Class 32 (Fri. Feb. 8): invertible sheaves
and maps to projective schemes.
Classes 33 and 34 (Mon. Feb. 18 and
Wed. Feb. 20): relative Spec and Proj, and projective morphisms.
Classes 35 and 36 (Fri. Feb. 22 and
Mon. Feb. 25): Cech cohomology of quasicoherent sheaves and its
important properties; cohomology of line bundles on projective space.
- Class 37 (Wed. Feb. 27): applications of cohomology: Hilbert
polynomials, Hilbert functions, degree, arithmetic genus.
- Class 38 (Fri. Feb. 29): higher direct image sheaves,
properties and fun applications.
- no class Mar. 3-7
- Class 39 (Mon. Mar. 10): from
Tor to derived functor cohomology in general.
- FARS seminar ("class 39.5"): Spectral sequences: friend or foe? (A revised and corrected version of this is in section 2.7 of the notes posted here. In particular, corrections from Steven Sam and Darij Greenberg are implementedhere. It is possible that at a later time, the section number "2.7" may change, but it should be easy to find the spectral sequence section.)
- Class 40 (Wed. Mar. 12): derived functor cohomology, and the
Leray spectral sequence.
notes are still coming!
Class 41 (Tues. Apr. 1): maps to projective schemes
extend over smooth codimension one points (the "curve to projective extension theorem"); and the left-over topic of
Class 42 (Thurs. Apr. 3): a bunch of equivalent
categories, each roughly of "curves over k"; the degree of a map of curves.
Class 43 (Tues. Apr. 8): Towards "fun with curves".
Black boxes: Serre duality, Riemann-Hurwitz. A criterion for a map to be a closed immersion.
Class 44 (Thurs. Apr. 10): some initial
crucial observations about curves;
curves of genus 0, curves of genus 2.
Class 45 (Tues. Apr. 15): hyperelliptic curves (and the conclusion
of curves of genus 2); curves of genus 3.
The 28 bitangents, and the 27 lines on a cubic surface (not included in these notes).
Class 46 (Thurs. Apr. 17): curves of genus at least 3;
more glimpses of moduli; elliptic curves (start): line bundles
of degree 0 (K=O), degree 1 (points form a group) (notes included in class 47).
Class 47 (Tues. Apr. 22): elliptic curves continued:
line bundles of degree 2 (the j-invariant), degree 3 (Weierstrass
normal form; the group law).
Class 48 (Thurs. Apr. 24): elliptic curves continued: Poncelet's theorem; fun counterexamples using elliptic curves.
Class 49 (Tues. Apr. 29): the Picard group has "dimension" g; the "moduli space of curves" as "dimension" 3g-3.
Class 50 (Thurs. May 1): differentials: motiation and game plan, the affine case (two of three definitions), affine versions of the relative cotangent sequence and the conormal exact sequence.
No class May 6 (Bea Yormark memorial service).
Class 51 (Thurs. May 8): differentials continued: a general definition, and many examples, including the Euler exact sequence.
Class 52 (Tues. May 13): differentials and varieties over algebraically closed
fields: Riemann-Hurwitz formula, Bertini's theorem, the conormal
exact sequence for nonsingular varieties.
Class 53 (Thurs. May 15): flatness, algebraic definition and easy facts, .
Class 54 (Tues. May 20): flat pullback commutes with higher pushforwards, symmetry of Tor, an ideal-theoretic criterion for flatness, for coherent modules over Noetherian local rings flat = free, flatness over nonsingular curves.
Class 55 (Thurs. May 22): dimensions behave well for flat morphisms, flatness implies constant euler characteristic and consequences thereof; degree of a line bundle over a flat family of curves is locally constant, a nonprojective proper surface.
Class 56 (Tues. May 27): cohomology and base change theorems, semicontinuity theorem, Grauert's theorem.
Classes 57 and 58 (Thurs. May 29 and Tues. June 3): smooth, etale, unramified: definitions and easier consequences, harder facts, generic smoothness in characteristic 0, Kleiman-Bertini theorem and applications, introduction
to the Schubert calculus.
Many thanks to many people, including especially Justin Walker,
for improving the class notes immeasurably!
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